Общеупотребительная лексика

Общеупотребительная лексика

Human body (Тело человека)

Parts of the body (Части тела)

head голова chest грудь
forehead лоб arm рука
eyes глаза хэнд кисть
eyebrow бровь wrist запястье
ears уши fingers пальцы
nose нос thumb большой палец на руке
cheek щека elbow локоть
mouth рот shoulder плечо
lips губки knee колено
chin Общеупотребительная лексика подбородок leg нога
neck шейка foot ступня

The outer part of the body is covered in skin. Too much sun is bad for your skin.

Physical actions (Физические деяния)

People breathe trough the nose or mouth, and breathe in and out 12-15 times a minute. People smile when they’re happy, and Общеупотребительная лексика sometimes smile at people to be polite. Funny things make people laugh – e.g. (2) when someone tells a joke. People sometimes cry if they’re unhappy or receive bad news. They yawn when they’re tired or bored. People in some countries nod their head to Общеупотребительная лексика mean “yes”, and shake their head for “no”.

Describing people’s appearance (описание наружности)

General descriptions (общие выражения)

man woman
handsome beautiful, pretty (often for describing a girl)
good-looking, attractive
ugly (very negative), plain (negative but more polite)

Height and build (рост и телосложение)

height build
tall slim, thin Общеупотребительная лексика (more negative meaning)
medium height medium build
short muscular
fat (not very polite), overweight (a bit less rude)

Hair (волосы)

blond(e) блондин long длинноватые
fair светлый short недлинные
brown каштановый straight прямые
dark черный wavy волнистые
black темный curly кучерявые
red рыжеватый
grey седоватый

Special features (Особенные приметы)

This Общеупотребительная лексика man has very pale skin (= light skin). He also has broad shoulders, with a scar on his right forehead. The other man has dark skin. He also has a beard and moustache.

Может быть употребление слов about и roughly («более либо менее», «около»), когда говорится о росте, весе либо Общеупотребительная лексика возрасте.

- What does she look like? - She’s tallish, with short fair hair.

- How tall is she? - About 1 metre 65.

- How much does she weigh? - I don’t know - roughly 50 kilos, I guess.

Суффикс –ish употребляется в конце неких прилагательных и значит «почти», «более либо менее», «около».

She’s got Общеупотребительная лексика longish hair.

He’s twentyish.

She’s roughly 40.

Describing character (Описание нрава)

Features of character (Черты нрава)

positive положительные negative отрицательные
warm, friendly миролюбивый cold, unfriendly недружелюбный
kind хороший unkind недобрый
nice, pleasant приятный horrible, unpleasant противный
generous щедрый mean жадный
optimistic оптимистичный pessimistic пессимистичный
easy-going размеренный tense, nervous Общеупотребительная лексика нервный
sensitive чувствительный insensitive нечуткий
honest добросовестный dishonest нечестный
good fun радостный boring кислый
broad-minded широко-мыслящий narrow-minded узколобый
hard-working трудолюбивый lazy ленивый
punctual пунктуальный not very punctual не очень пунктуальный
clever умный stupid глуповатый

My parents are great and don’t mind what I wear Общеупотребительная лексика – they are very broad-minded. When I tried on the dress, the shop assistant said it would look better on a younger person. I know she was trying to be honest, but it was a bit insensitive of her.

NOTE! Слово “sympathetic” в британском языке означает Общеупотребительная лексика «сочувственный», а не «симпатичный».

He’s very self-confident. (= feels he can do things, and is relaxed in social situations).When you first meet her she seems shy. (= finds it difficult to talk to people and make conversation). She doesn’t show her feelings. (= you don’t know what Общеупотребительная лексика she is thinking or feeling). He’s got a great sense of humour. (= laughs a lot and sees the funny side of life). She мейд a very good impression at her interview. (= had a positive effect on the interviewer). My first impression of him was a bit negative. She Общеупотребительная лексика comes across as (= appears to be) quite serious.

Family and friends (Семья и друзья)

Relatives (Родственники)

male мужчины female дамы
father отец mother мама
brother брат sister сестра
son отпрыск daughter дочь
grandfather дед grandmother бабушка
uncle дядя aunt тетя
cousin кузен, двоюродный брат cousin кузина, двоюродная сестра
father-in-law Общеупотребительная лексика тесть, свекор mother-in law теща, свекровь
son-in-law зять daughter -in-law невестка
nephew племянник niece племянница
widower вдовец widow вдова
stepfather отчим stepmother мачеха
stepson пасынок stepdaughter падчерица

I’ve got two brothers and a sister. My brothers are twins (= two children born to one mother at Общеупотребительная лексика the same time), and they are three years younger than me. I’m the oldest and I take after my father (= I am similar to him in appearance and\or character). My sister takes after my father in some ways, but she looks like my mother Общеупотребительная лексика (= her appearance is similar to my mother’s). We’re a close family (=we have a good relationship\see each other a lot). My best friend Pete is an only child (= without brothers and sisters); he spends a lot of time with us and he’s almost one of Общеупотребительная лексика the family.

Your parents give you a first name. Your family name, usually called surname, is the one that all family have. Your full name is all the names you have.

In some parts of the world couples may live together but do not get married. In this relationship they often Общеупотребительная лексика call each other their partner. Where the child or children live(s) with just one parent, especially after the parents have separated (= they don’t live together any more), these are sometimes called single-parent families.

Friends (Друзья)

An old friend (=someone you have known for a long Общеупотребительная лексика time)

A close friend (= a good friend\ someone you like and trust)

Your best friend (the friend you feel closest to)

Classmates (=other people in your class)

Flatmates (= people you share a house/ flat with, who are not your family)

Colleagues (= people you work with; they may or may Общеупотребительная лексика not to be friends)

Ex- (Бывшие)

The children stay with my ex-husband at the weekend.

I saw an ex-girlfriend of mine at the disco last night.

Ages and stages (возраст и период)

age stage
0-1 approximately baby
1-2 toddler
2-12 approximately child – this period is your childhood
13-17 approximately teenager
18+ adult
20-29 in Общеупотребительная лексика your twenties
30-39 in your thirties
40+ middle-aged
60 or 65 retirement (= when people stop work; they are retired)
75+ old age

Sam was born in Scotland but when he was two, his father got a new job in Los Angeles, and grew up in California. He went to university at Общеупотребительная лексика 19 where he met Anthea. He went out with her (= she was his girlfriend; he was her boyfriend) for three years, but towards the end had lots of rows (= arguments) and finally they split up (= separated\ended their relationship). In his mid-twenties he met Marie. They fell in love Общеупотребительная лексика and got married within six months. One year later she got pregnant and they had their first child, a boy. But the marriage was not a success. Sam left two years afterwards and they got divorced (= the marriage ended officially). Four years later Marie remarried (= got married again), and she Общеупотребительная лексика is now expecting a second baby (= she’s pregnant).

Daily routines (Распорядок денька)

During the week I usually wake up at 6.30 am. I sometimes lie in bed (= stay in bed) for 5-10 minutes but then I have to get up (= get out of bed and put on clothes). Most evening I Общеупотребительная лексика go to bed about 11.30 pm, and usually go to sleep\ fall asleep very quickly. If I have a late night (= go to bed very late; opp (3) an early night), it’s easy to oversleep (= sleep too long) the next morning, then I may be late for work. If I can Общеупотребительная лексика I have a sleep (= for a short period) in the afternoon. At weekends I often have a lie-in (= stay in bed until later).

In the week I have breakfast at 7.00am, lunch at 1.00 pm and dinner around 7pm. I also have one or two snacks (= food eaten between Общеупотребительная лексика meals) during the day. As I live alone\ on my own (= without other people), I have to make my own breakfast and dinner (= prepare meal for myself), but during the week I don’t bother (= don’t make an effort) to cook very much. I also have to Общеупотребительная лексика feed (= give food to) my cats twice a day.

In summer I have a shower in the morning but in winter I often have a bath instead. Sometimes I have a shave at the same time, or I shave when I have a wash and clean\brush Общеупотребительная лексика my teeth after breakfast. I wash my hair two or three times a week.

In the morning I leave home about 8.15 am and get to work (= arrive at work) by 9 pm. I have a lunch break (= period when I stop work for lunch) from 1-2 pm and usually a couple of short Общеупотребительная лексика breaks (= periods to relax) during the day. I leave work around 5.30 and get home about 6.15.

In the week I usually stay in (= stay at home) and watch TV or read in the evening. At the weekend I go out (= leave the house for social reasons), but I also Общеупотребительная лексика have friends for dinner (= invite friends to my house and cook dinner for them), or friends come round (= visit me at the house) to play cards.

I do the shopping (= buy the food and household goods) on Saturday. Fortunately\ Luckily (= it is lucky for me) I have a cleaner Общеупотребительная лексика (= a person who cleans) and she does most of the housework: she does my washing (= washes my clothes), she does the washing-up (= washes the dishes) and most of the ironing.

The place where you live (Место, где ты живешь)

Location (Месторасположение)

I live on the outskirts of town Общеупотребительная лексика. (= on the edge of town, near the country)

I live in the suburbs. (= areas where people live outside the centre of town)

I live in a residential area. (= a nice area of houses\flats, with no factories)

I live quite close to the station. (= near the station)

I live right in Общеупотребительная лексика the centre. (= exactly in the centre)

I live in a block of flats. My brother lives on the ground floor, I have a flat on the third floor. Unfortunately there is no lift, so I have to climb (= go up\ walk up) three flights of stairs to reach Общеупотребительная лексика my flat. But I have a balcony with a great view of the park opposite the building.

House (Дом)

roof крыша fence ограда
chimney дымопровод gate ворота
front door входная дверь path дорожка
doorbell звонок garden сад
garage гараж steps ступени

NOTE! в британском языке слово «steps Общеупотребительная лексика» употребляется для обозначения ступеней снаружи либо снутри общественных построек, а слово «stairs» для обозначения ступеней снутри жилых домов.

My parents own their house (= they bought it/ it belongs to them). I rent a flat near my university (= I don’t own it; I pay money every week to the owner Общеупотребительная лексика). The rooms are tiny (= very small, opp huge\ enormous), but they’re light (opp dark) because they’re on the top floor and get lots of sun. The flats on the ground floor are dark and also noisy (opp quiet) because they are nearer to the traffic. Some rooms Общеупотребительная лексика are droughty (= cold air comes in through windows and under doors), and are expensive to heat (= keep warm); but I’ve got central heating (= system of heating every room in a building) and the flat is in good condition.

Inside (Снутри)

The living room or lounge (= where you Общеупотребительная лексика sit, relax and watch TV); the dining room; the kitchen; the bedroom(s); and the bathroom(s). Some people have a study (= room with a desk where you work) and a spare room (room you don’t use every day, and where guests can sleep).The entrance area in Общеупотребительная лексика a house or flat is called the hall.

The living room

video recorder видеомагнитофон curtains шторы
stereo system стереосистема blinds жалюзи
СD player СD плеер armchair кресло
speaker колонка sofa диванчик, софа
coffee table кофейный столик carpet ковер, ковровое покрытие
vase ваза rug половик
lamp лампа cushion диванная подушка

While the cat Общеупотребительная лексика was asleep in the armchair, I sat on the sofa and had a look at the paper. Then I turned on the TV to watch the news.

The kitchen

washing machine стиральная машина oven духовка
fridge холодильник kettle чайник
freezer морозилка cup чашечка
microwave микроволновая печь saucer блюдце
dishwasher посудомоечная Общеупотребительная лексика машина saucepan кастрюля
sink раковина frying pan сковорода
tap смеситель knife ножик
grill гриль spoon ложка
cooker плита fork вилка

I put the meat in the oven, then I мейд myself a coffee and put the milk back in the fridge. After that, I put some cups and Общеупотребительная лексика saucers in the dishwasher.

The bedroom

bed кровать pillow подушка
wardrobe шкаф sheet простыня
bedside table тумбочка blanket одеяло
alarm clock будильник pyjamas пижама

I put on my pyjamas, got into bed, and read a book for half an hour. Then I set the alarm clock, switched off the light and Общеупотребительная лексика went to sleep.

mirror зеркало shower душ
washbasin умывальник bath ванна
towel полотенце toilet унитаз

I didn’t have time for a bath, but I had a wash, cleaned my teeth, and then I went to work.

Clothes (Одежка)

hat шапка jumper джемпер
coat пальто shirt рубаха Общеупотребительная лексика
scarf шарф tie галстук
jacket пиджак socks носки
suit костюмчик tights колготки
skirt юбка gloves перчатки
blouse\top блузка\ топ shoes туфли
jeans джинсы boots башмаки
collar воротник pocket кармашек
button пуговица earrings серьги
zip «молния» necklace колье
belt пояс, ремень handbag сумочка

I got up at 7.30 had a shower, got dressed Общеупотребительная лексика (= put on my clothes), and had breakfast. It was a cold morning so I put on my coat, do up\undo its buttons and left home about 8.20. When I got to work I took my coat off and hung it up behind the door. It was hot in the Общеупотребительная лексика office so I took my jacket off as well. During my lunch break I had a look round the shops. I saw a nice jacket in one place and tried it on, but it didn’t fit me – it was too small and they didn’t have the Общеупотребительная лексика right size. When I got home I took off my suit and changed into jeans and a T-shirt.

Shops and shopping (Магазины и поход по магазинам)

Types of shops and what they sell (Типы магазинов, и что они продают)

name of shop what they sell
department store Общеупотребительная лексика almost everything (furniture, clothes, electrical appliances, e.g. TV and washing machine; toys, e.g. dolls, games; jewellery, e.g. rings, earrings)
supermarket most things, especially food and household goods, e.g. cleaning products and kitchen equipment, etc (1).
newsagent newspapers, cigarettes, stationery, e.g. writing paper, envelopes
butcher meat
chemist medicine Общеупотребительная лексика, baby products, shampoo, soap, toothpaste, etc.
off-licence Specialist shop for wine, beer and soft drinks

NOTE! в британском языке в большинстве других случаев в заглавии типа магазина просто добавляется «shop», к примеру: «shoe shop» - обувной магазин.

Where’s the shop-assistant? (= person who works in Общеупотребительная лексика a shop; also called sales assistant)

The shoes were in the shop window. (= the window at the front of the shop)

We went to the new shopping centre. (= a place with many shops, outside or indoor)

I just went window shopping. (= looking round the shops without buying anything)

Did you make a Общеупотребительная лексика shopping list? (= a list of things to buy)

I went shopping yesterday. (= I bought things, e.g. clothes, CDs, a present for my sister)

I did the shopping yesterday. (= I bought food and things for the house)

You have to shop around for the best prices. (= go to different Общеупотребительная лексика shops to find best prices)

In a clothes shop

ASSISTANT: Can I help you?

CUSTOMER: Yes, I’m looking for (= I want) a blue jumper.

No, I’m just looking, thanks. (= I don’t need help)

I’m being served, thanks. (= another assistant is serving me)

ASSISTANT: What size are Общеупотребительная лексика you? (Large? Small? Medium? 14? 18?)

CUSTOMER: Where’s the changing room\fitting room? (the room where you try on clothes)

ASSISTANT: It’s down there on the right.

CUSTOMER: Yes, I’ll take this one \these.(= I want to buy)

No, I’ll leave it (= I don Общеупотребительная лексика’t want to buy)

Where do I pay for these?

ASSISTANT: Over at the cash desk\till.

CUSTOMER: And can I pay by credit card?

Food (Еда)

fruit фрукты vegetables овощи
apple яблоко potato картофель
orange апельсин tomato помидор
pineapple ананас carrot морковь
grapes виноград cucumber огурец
banana банан onion лук Общеупотребительная лексика
pear груша garlic чеснок
lemon лимон peas горох
peach персик aubergine баклажан
plum слива cabbage капуста
melon дыня red pepper болгарский перец
water-melon арбуз lettuce салат
cherries вишня broccoli брокколи
strawberry клубника cauliflower цветная капуста
raspberry малина mushrooms грибы

You normally peel oranges and bananas (= remove the Общеупотребительная лексика skin) before you eat them. I peeled the potatoes and chopped the carrots (= cut into small pieces). A salad is usually a mixture of uncooked vegetables. In Britain it often contains lettuce; also contain tomato, cucumber and other things. We often put salad dressing (usually a mixture of Общеупотребительная лексика oil and vinegar, or oil and lemon juice) on salad.

Meat (Мясо)

animal животное meat
cow скотина beef
calf теленок veal
lamb ягненок lamb
pig свинья pork
chicken цыпленок chicken

Fish and seafood (рыба и морепродукты)

salmon лосось mussels мидии
prawn креветка lobster лобстер
oyster устрица crab краб

Cooking (Изготовление Общеупотребительная лексика еды)

Ways of cooking food (Cпособы изготовления)

Boil: in water, e.g. potatoes or rice

Fry: in oil or butter above the heat, e.g. sausages

Grill: under the heat, e.g. toast or meat

Roast: in the oven using oil, e.g. meat

Bake: in the oven without oil, e.g. cakes

Taste Общеупотребительная лексика the sauce (= try a bit to see if it’s good) and add salt if necessary. You can really taste the garlic in this. It’s very tasty (=lots of flavour).

Describing food and drink (Описание пищи и напитков)

salty lots of salt
hot\spicy lots of spices, e.g Общеупотребительная лексика. curry, chilli
sweet lots of sugar
bitter e.g. very strong coffee
sour e.g. lemon
fresh recently produced or picked, e.g. fresh bread, fresh fruit
fattening food which makes you put on weight\ get fat, e.g. cream, cakes, etc
healthy good for your health\ fitness, e.g Общеупотребительная лексика. salad or fruit
chilled very cold, e.g. white wine is usually chilled
still water without gas
sparkling water with gas

Health (Здоровье)

Common problems (Общие трудности)

She’s sneezing Она чихает
She’s coughing Она кашляет
She’s got a sore throat У нее болит гортань
She Общеупотребительная лексика’s blowing her nose Она сморкается
She’s got a temperature У нее температура

- I don’t feel well.

- What’s the matter?

- I’ve got a sore throat and I keep sneezing.

- You’ve probably got a cold or flu. You should go to bed.

- Yes, I think I Общеупотребительная лексика will.

What’s the matter? The symptoms Cause of illness
I’ve got a cold. Sneezing, a sore throat, a cough A virus
I’ve got flu. (= like cold but more serious) Same as for a cold + high temperature A virus
I’ve got diarrhea. I keep Общеупотребительная лексика going to the toilet Often food, or a virus
I feel sick. I want to vomit (= be sick) Many, e.g. food, illness
I’ve got a hangover. Headache, feel sick Too much alcohol

For illnesses you can go to a doctor or a chemist (= pharmacy). The doctor may give Общеупотребительная лексика you a prescription (= paper with an order for medicine) that you get from the chemist.

NOTE! в британском языке употребляется существительное «ache», когда молвят о боли в спине (backache), желудке (stomachache), ушах (earache), головной (headache), зубной боли (toothache), a других случаях употребляют существительное «pain». Оба слова употребляются с Общеупотребительная лексика глаголом «get».

I’ve got a terrible headache. I often get backache.

I woke up with a terrible pain in my chest. I get a pain in my leg when I run.

«Ache» также может быть глаголом - при описании несильной боли, которая длится длительное время.

By the end Общеупотребительная лексика of the day my feet were aching.

«Hurt» - глагол, который обрисовывает сильную либо неожиданную боль.

Where does it hurt? My throat hurts when I speak.

«Painful» - прилагательное, которое употребляется почаще других.

Did it hurt when you had the fillings (= when the dentist fills a hole\ cavity in the tooth Общеупотребительная лексика)?

It was quite painful when she gave me the injection.

Serious illness (Суровые заболевания)

heart сердечко lungs легкие
liver печень stomach желудок

Smoking is a major cause of lung cancer. He had a heart attack and died almost immediately. Hepatitis is a disease affecting the liver. Many people suffer from Общеупотребительная лексика (= have the illness of) asthma (= chest illness causing breathing problems).

Injuries (Повреждения)

An injury is damage to part of your body.

What’s the matter? How did it happen? result solution
She cut her finger Using a knife It’s bleeding Put a plaster on it
He twisted Общеупотребительная лексика his ankle Running for a bus He can’t walk Put a bandage on it
She’s got a bruise She hit her ankle when she fell over It’s swollen black and blue Ice pack
He broke his arm He fell off his bike He can’t use Общеупотребительная лексика it A sling
She burnt her хэнд On the kettle It’s very painful Put cream on it

NOTE! «Hurt» - глагол, который применяется при описании боли от повреждений, ранений.

I hurt my back in the garden.

Hospital treatment (Исцеление в поликлинике)

John fell out of his window and hit his head on Общеупотребительная лексика the ground. His wife called an ambulance but John was still unconscious when it arrived. He was rushed to hospital (= taken to hospital very quickly) and when he came round (= become conscious), he didn’t know where he was.

Two players jumped for the ball and Общеупотребительная лексика bumped into each other (= hit each other but it was an accident). One cut his head and had to go to hospital. He needed ten stitches.

NOTE! Существительные «wound» и «injury» обрисовывают телесные повреждения, но слово «wound» обычно употребляется при описании ранений от орудия, приобретенных в стычке либо на Общеупотребительная лексика войне. Глаголы «wound» и «injure».

He was seriously (= badly) injured in a car crash.

Two of the soldiers were wounded.

Someone shot him (with a gun).

He got into a fight and he was beaten up.

City life (Жизнь в городке)

commercial centre area with lots of banks and Общеупотребительная лексика company offices
shopping centre place with many shops, either indoors or outdoors
car parks places to leave many cars
factories buildings where you make\ manufacture things
skyscrapers\ high-rise buildings buildings with many floors
libraries places where you can borrow books

For many people the worst time of day is the Общеупотребительная лексика rush hour (= the time when people travel to and from work). At this time of day the public transport system (= trains and buses) has to cope with (= manage something which is difficult) the people who live in the city, and also commuters (= people who live in the country but travel Общеупотребительная лексика into the city for work). The roads get congested (= busy and full of cars) and people are always in a hurry (= want to get to another place very quickly). For many, this is very stressful (= makes you nervous and anxious).

I live and works in the suburbs, but Общеупотребительная лексика I usually go into town (=the town centre) two or three times a week. In the evening, it is pretty lively (= lots of people and lots of things happening), and there’s plenty to do (= lots of possibilities, e.g. bars, discos, etc). One problem is that there’s nowhere Общеупотребительная лексика to park in the centre, so I usually get/ take a bus into town and take\get a taxi home if I’m late.

The best things about living in a city are:

There’s good nightlife (= places to go at night, e.g. bars, discos, cinemas Общеупотребительная лексика)

There’s a wide range of shops (= many shops selling different things)

You can get whatever you want (= buy everything you want)

There are lots of cultural activities (e.g. museums, concerts, films)

It’s cosmopolitan (= full of people from many countries and cultures)

There are more job Общеупотребительная лексика opportunities (= easier to find work)

The worst things about living in a city are:

It’s very crowded (= full of people)

People are more aggressive (= seem angry and very unfriendly)

It can be noisy (opp quiet) and dangerous (opp safe)

The streets are often dirty (opp clean) and it’s polluted Общеупотребительная лексика (= dirty air)

There’s traffic congestion (= too many cars) and parking is difficult.

There’s a high crime rate (= number of crimes)

You have a higher cost of living (e.g. houses are more expensive, so is transport)

Life in the country (Жизнь в деревне)

I grew up (= spent Общеупотребительная лексика my childhood) in a rural area (= an area in the country; opp an urban area). It was quiet a remote area (= an area far from towns), and we lived in an old cottage (= a type of house, often small, you find in the country). My sister and I Общеупотребительная лексика played a lot in the woods (= an area of trees like a small forest), not far from the nearest village (= a place smaller than a town). I loved being in the country.

A lot of land in the country\ countryside is used for agriculture\ farming. Some farms grow crops Общеупотребительная лексика (e.g. wheat, apples, potatoes) and some keep animals (e.g. cows, sheep, pigs). When I was younger I worked on a farm during my school holidays.

The best things about living in the country are:

You get peace and quiet (a common phrase to describe a place that is quiet Общеупотребительная лексика and calm).

You get fresh air (= air outside a building or town which is clean)

You’re surrounded by lovely scenery and you can walk in the countryside.

The pace of life (= the amount of activity in life) is slower and more relaxed.

The worst things about living Общеупотребительная лексика in the country are:

There isn’t much nightlife.

Public transport is hopeless (= terrible)

You don’t get many shops.

There isn1t much privacy (= private life) because everyone knows what you are doing.

Work: duties, pay and conditions (Работа: обязанности, оплата и условия)

questions answers
What do you do Общеупотребительная лексика? I’m a banker\an engineer… (I’m + a(an)+ job)
What’s your job? I work in a bank\ marketing (work in + place or type of work)
What do you do for a living? I work for Union Bank\ Fiat (work for + name of company) (= I’m Общеупотребительная лексика employed by Union Bank\Fiat) I’m self-employed (= I work for myself)

When people ask you explain your job, they want to know your responsibilities (= your duties\ what you have to do), or something about your daily routine (= what you do every day). They can ask Общеупотребительная лексика like this: What does that involve? (= What do you do in your job?)

General duties\ responsibilities

I’m in charge of\ responsible for security in the factory (= the place where a product is мейд). I deal with\ handle customer complaints (= take all necessary actions when customers unhappy). I run the Общеупотребительная лексика coffee bar in the museum (= I’m in control of it\ I manage it).

Daily duties\routines

I have to go to\ attend a lot of meetings. I visit\ see\ meet clients (= people I do business with, who pay for my service). I advise clients (= give them help and my Общеупотребительная лексика opinion). My job involves travelling [! the “-ing” form after involve]

For many people in Britain working hours are 8.30-9.00 am to 5.00-5.30 pm, so people often talk about a nine-to-five job (= regular working hours). Some people do flextime (= they can start work earlier or finish later); and some do Общеупотребительная лексика shiftwork (= work at different times, e.g. during the day one week, at night the next). Some people work\ do overtime (= work extra hours for more money).

Most workers are paid (=receive money) every month. This is called a salary. We can also use the verbs earn\ make. I Общеупотребительная лексика earn $ 60,000 a year (= My salary is $ 60,000 a year). Some people are paid for the hours they work. The lowest amount for one hour’s work is called the minimum wage. This amount is decided by the government. With most jobs you get 4-6 weeks` paid holiday; you also get sick Общеупотребительная лексика pay (= pay when you are ill). The total amount of money you receive in a year is called your income. This could be your salary from one job, or the salary from two different jobs. You have to pay part of your income to the government – this is called income tax Общеупотребительная лексика.

Manual job (Ручной труд)

These are jobs where you work with your hands and these are all skilled (= need a lot of training).

bricklayer builds walls with bricks
carpenter makes things using wood
plumber installs and repairs water pipes, etc.
electrician installs and repairs electrical things
mechanic repairs cars

Professional Общеупотребительная лексика people (Мастера)

architect designs buildings
lawyer represents people with legal problem
engineer plans the building of roads, bridges, machines, etc
accountant controls the financial situation of people and companies
university lecture teaches in a university
stockbroker buys and sells stocks and shares (e.g. on Wall Street Общеупотребительная лексика)
sales\personnel manager responsible for sales or personnel staff

The medical profession (Мед профессия)

Doctors, nurses and surgeons (= specialist doctors who operate on people) work in hospitals. GPs (= general practitioners – doctors who treat people with general problems), dentists and vets (= animal doctors) work in places called surgeries. All Общеупотребительная лексика of theses people treat (= give medical help, e.g. advice, medicines) and look after (= care for\ take care of) people or animals.

The armed forces and the emergency services (Вооруженные силы и службы скорой помощи)

soldier in the army
sailor in the navy
pilot in the air force
police officer Общеупотребительная лексика\ policeman(women) in the police force
firefighter\ fireman in the fire brigade

In the office (В кабинете)

computer компьютер desk письменный стол
monitor монитор swivel chair стул (вращающийся)
keyboard клавиатура notice board доска для заметок
calculator калькулятор files папки
diary ежедневник cabinet/ drawers тумбочка\ ящики
briefcase портфель wastepaper Общеупотребительная лексика basket корзина для бумаг

Brian works for a company which produces (= makes\manufacturing) furniture. He works in an office, opposite the factory where the furniture is мейд. This is how he spends his day: He works at a computer most of the time, where he types letters and reports Общеупотребительная лексика, and sends lots of e-mails. He sends invoices (= paper showing products sold and the money to pay) to customers, and does quite a lot of paperwork, e.g. filing reports (putting them in a file\ filling cabinet), etc. Occasionally he shows people round the factory. He has to make appointments Общеупотребительная лексика for his boss and put them in the diary. He also arranges meetings for managers from different departments and types the agenda (= list of things to discuss at a meeting). Sometimes he has to attend (= go to) meetings and take the minutes (= write down everything that is said during Общеупотребительная лексика the meeting).

Office problems (Трудности в кабинете)

Like most people who work in an office, Brian has his problems: The photocopier is broken. The printer isn’t working. We’ve run out of paper (= the paper is finished). The computer’s down (= not working) at the moment. One of my Общеупотребительная лексика colleagues is off (= not at work) today and we’ve got loads of work (= a lot of work) to do.

Transport (Транспорт)

Vehicles (Тс)

bus автобус coach автобус междугороднего сообщения
car автомобиль taxi такси
van фургон motorbike байк
bicycle велик lorry грузовик

- How did you get here Общеупотребительная лексика?

- I came by bus.

- And the others?

- Sue and John came by car.

- And Paul?

- He missed the bus, so he had to get a taxi.

bus train plane
driver driver pilot
drive drive fly
fare fare air fare
get/ catch/ take get/ catch/ take get/ take
get Общеупотребительная лексика on\ off get on\ off get on\ off
journey journey flight\ journey
bus station railway station airport

taxi bicycle car
driver cyclist driver
drive ride drive
fare ----- ----
get/ take go on (my) go in (my)
get in\ out (of) get on\ off get in\ out
---- ride journey
taxi rank ---- ----

Trains Общеупотребительная лексика (Поезда)

These are things train passengers often to say or ask:

Single to London, please (= a ticket to London)

Return to Glasgow, please (= a ticket to Glasgow and back)

Does this train go to Oxford?

Do I have to change (= change to another train)?

Is it a fast train or a Общеупотребительная лексика stopping train?

Which platform for Liverpool and when is the train due to arrive (= timetable to arrive)?

Buses (Автобусы)

Sometimes buses are punctual (= arrive at the correct time) but not always. Where I live, buses should run (travel\ operate) every ten minutes, but sometimes I wait at the bus Общеупотребительная лексика stop for half an hour in a queue (= line of people), and then three buses come together, and they’re all full up (=full of people) . Other times the bus is early and I miss it (= I don’t catch it).

Taxis (Такси)

Taxis show what you have Общеупотребительная лексика to pay on the meter. When you want the driver to stop, you can say this: Could you drop me here? (= Could you stop here?) People often give taxi drivers a tip (= extra money as well as the fare).

On the road (На дороге)

traffic lights светофор road signs Общеупотребительная лексика дорожные знаки
junction перекресток lane полоса
bend поворот bridge мост
pedestrian crossing пешеходный переход motorway дорога, трасса

An accident (Катастрофа, дорожное происшествие)

There was an accident on one of the main roads into town this morning. A lorry broke down (= stopped because of a problem) in the Общеупотребительная лексика middle of the road. It was 8 o’clock, a busy time, and with the lorry blocking the road (= stopping things from moving in the road), there was soon a long tailback (= long line of cars that cannot move). One man in a Мерседес pulled out (= moved out to the centre Общеупотребительная лексика of the road) to go round the lorry, but another car was coming in the opposite direction. The driver braked (= put his foot on the brake to stop the car), but he couldn’t prevent the accident (= stop it happening) - the Мерседес crashed into the front of his car. The Общеупотребительная лексика driver of the Мерседес was OK, but the other driver was badly injured and both cars were badly damaged.

Cars and buses use the road; pedestrians (= people who walk) use the pavement. Cars mustn’t park on the pavement. The speed limit on motorways in Great Britain is 70 mph (120 kph Общеупотребительная лексика). The police use speed cameras to catch people who are speeding\ breaking the speed limit (= going too fast). Most petrol stations (= places where you buy petrol) in Great Britain are self-service (= there are no people to put petrol in your car; you serve yourself and Общеупотребительная лексика then pay). The other car was going very slowly, so I decided to overtake it (pass it on the outside).

Air travel (Воздушные путешествия)

Departure (Отправление)

When you arrive at the airport, you can look at the departure board which shows the flight numbers (e.g. BA735), departure times (e.g Общеупотребительная лексика. 08.40) and destinations (e.g. London). At the check-in desk they weigh your luggage. Usually you can take about 20 kilos. If it is more you may have to pay excess baggage (= you pay extra). They also check your ticket and give you a boarding card for the plane with Общеупотребительная лексика your seat number on it. Then you go through passport control where an official checks your passport and into the departure lounge. Here you can also buy things in the duty free, e.g. perfume or alcohol. About half an hour before take-off you go to a Общеупотребительная лексика gate number, e.g. gate 14, where you wait before you get on the plane. When you board (= get on) the plane you find your seat. If you have хэнд luggage you can put it under your seat or in the overhead locker above your seat. If there are Общеупотребительная лексика no delays (= when you have to wait until a later time for some reason), the plane moves towards the runway (= the area where planes take off and land).

NOTE! Слово «delay» может быть и существительным, и прилагательным:

There’s a two-hour delay on our flight. Why is the flight Общеупотребительная лексика delayed?

What’s the reason for the delay? We were delayed at Athens airport.

The flight (Полет)

The captain (= the pilot) or cabin crew (= people who look after passengers) may say these things:

Please fasten your seat belt and put your seat in the upright position.

May we remind passengers (= to Общеупотребительная лексика passengers: please remember) that there is no smoking now until you are inside the terminal building (= the part of the airport where passengers arrive and depart).

The cabin crew are now coming round with landing cards (cards you have to fill in when you enter certain countries).

Arrival Общеупотребительная лексика (Прибытие)

When the plane lands (= arrives on the ground) you have to wait for it to stop. When the doors are open you get off the plane and walk through the terminal building and go to the baggage reclaim (= place where collect your luggage). You go through Общеупотребительная лексика customs (GREEN – nothing to declare; RED – goods to declare). At most airports, you can hire a car (= rent a car).

Hotels and restaurants (Гостиницы и рестораны)

Types of hotel accommodation (Типы гостиничного жилища)

a single room room for one person with a single bed
a double room room for two Общеупотребительная лексика people with one large bed
a twin room room for two people with two single beds
full board includes breakfast, lunch and dinner
half board includes breakfast and dinner
B&B just bed (= the room) and breakfast

At busy times, e.g. the weekend, you may need to book (= reserve Общеупотребительная лексика) a room in a hotel or a table in a restaurant in advanced (= before you go). When you arrive at a hotel you check in at reception (= tell the receptionist you have arrived); at a restaurant you ask for a table (e.g. Could we have a table for Общеупотребительная лексика two? I booked a table for two. The name is Carter). In restaurants you can tip the waiter\ waitress (= give money for good service) if service is not included; in a hotel you may also give the porter (= person who carries luggage) a tip. At the end of a meal Общеупотребительная лексика in a restaurant or the end of your stay in a hotel, you pay the bill.

In a restaurant (В ресторане)

You can see the food available on the menu, and choose wine (and other drinks) from the wine list. There are usually three parts to Общеупотребительная лексика a meal: a starter (e.g. soup), a meal course (e.g. meat or fish) and a dessert (e.g. fruit or ice cream). A drink before the meal is often called an aperitif.

Useful words and expressions (Полезные слова и выражения)

In a hotel

GUEST: Are you fully booked Общеупотребительная лексика (= completely full) next week?

Do you have any rooms available (= free rooms) this weekend?

Is breakfast\ dinner included? (= Does the price include breakfast\ dinner?)

Where’s the lift? (= the machine which takes you up or down a floor)

Excuse me. How do I get to the underground station from Общеупотребительная лексика here?

There’s something wrong with (= there’s problem with) the heating in my room.

What time do we have to check out? (= leave the room on our last day)

In a restaurant

WAITER: Are you ready to order? (= Have you decided what you want?)

Would you like to try the Общеупотребительная лексика wine? (= taste the wine to see if it is OK)

Is everything all right with your meal?

CUSTOMER: Are you fully booked?

I’ll have the soup to start (= as a starter)

Excuse me. Where’s the toilet?

Holiday in the city (Отпуск в городке)

palace дворец statue Общеупотребительная лексика монумент
market рынок castle замок
temple храм cathedral собор

Many people go on a sightseeing tour of a town (usually in a bus); they can also go on a tour of a castle, cathedral, etc. When you are sightseeing, it helps to buy a guidebook (= a book of information for Общеупотребительная лексика tourists) and a map of the town you are visiting.

Tourist activities

We went sightseeing almost every day.

I didn’t do a lot of sightseeing in Warsaw.

We had a quick look round the shops.

I wanted to have a look round the art galleries.

I took hundreds of Общеупотребительная лексика pictures on holiday.

I spent lots of money – too much.

We got lost almost every day in London.

They had a lovely time in Venice

On holyday we went out every night.

NOTE! Слово «place» может обозначать: здание, город, страну и т.д.

Bruges is a lovely place (= town) and we found Общеупотребительная лексика a really nice place (= hotel) to stay. The town is full of interesting places (= areas\ buildings)

St Petersburg has lots of historic monuments (= important places built a long time ago). Many beautiful cities are now very touristy (= a negative word: two much tourism). Sao Paolo is a really lively Общеупотребительная лексика place (= full of life and activity) and the nightlife is fantastic.

NOTE! Используйте выражение «be worth + ing or noun», если желаете сказать: что это место следует посетить; что-то следует сделать

If I go to Scotland, is it worth spending a few days in Edinburgh?

Yes, definitely Общеупотребительная лексика – and Glasgow is worth a visit as well.

Holidays by the sea (Отпуск у моря)

When people go on holiday they stay in various places: some go to hotels; some rent an apartment (= a holiday flat); some prefer to go camping and sleep in a tent.

Many people spend their holiday in Общеупотребительная лексика seaside resorts (= towns by the sea for tourists) where they can go to the beach every day.

You sometimes get a gentle breeze from the sea, which helps to cool you down on hot days, but it can also burn you.

Many people go to the beach to Общеупотребительная лексика sunbathe (= lie in the sun) and get a suntan (= when the body goes an attractive brown colour from the sun; we can also say – be brown). This can be dangerous, and you should always put on suntan lotion (= cream or oil to stop your skin burning). This will Общеупотребительная лексика also help you to get a tan and protect your skin (= keep your skin safe). If you don’t protect your skin you may get sunburn (= the skin becomes red and very painful).

Seaside activities

I like to go for a walk along the cliffs. On sandy beaches I often play volleyball Общеупотребительная лексика. I sometimes go windsurfing\ snorkelling\diving. I don’t swim much but I like to have a paddle (= just put my feet in the sea). My sister likes to have a swim in the sea but not if it’s very rough (opp calm).

the horizon горизонт diving погружение Общеупотребительная лексика с полным снаряжением
yacht яхта snorkelling погружение с трубкой и ластами
waves волны windsurfing плавание на доске с парусом

Weather (Погода)

Weather conditions (Погодные условия)

cуществительное прилагательное
sun (солнце) sunny
cloud (скопление) cloudy
fog (туман) foggy
heat (жара) hot

существительное прилагательное
wind (ветер) windy
ice (лед Общеупотребительная лексика) icy
shower (ливень) showery
humidity (влажность) humid

It was very cloudy in the morning, but then the sun came out (=appeared) in the afternoon. The accident happened in the thick fog (= bad fog) on the motorway.

Rain (Дождик)

drizzle – light rain (= raining a bit). It was cloudy with a bit Общеупотребительная лексика of drizzle.

pour – heavy rain (= raining a lot). It’s pouring outside.

shower – rain for a short period of time. We had several showers today – some quite heavy.

Temperature (Температура)


boiling (very hot) hot warm not very warm cold (chilly) freezing (very cold)

How hot does it get in summer?

It Общеупотребительная лексика can reach about 35 degrees.

How cold does it get in winter?

It often goes below 0. (zero)

Wind (Ветер)

a breeze a wind a strong wind a gale a hurricane


A breeze is gentle and pleasant; a hurricane is over 100 km per hour and can be dangerous. It was a hot Общеупотребительная лексика day but there was a gentle breeze. Her hair was blowing in the wind. The trees were damaged in the gale last night. The hurricane destroyed many buildings.

Time (Время)

At a specific time at 8 o’clock, at 3.30, at midnight
On a day on Monday, on July, on Общеупотребительная лексика the second day
In a period in the morning, in April, in summer, in 1998

Exceptions: at Christmas, at night, at the weekend

12.00 – It’s 12 o’clock.

12.10 – It’s ten minutes past 12.

12.15 – It’s a quarter past 12.

12.30 – It’s a half past 12.

12.40 – It’s twenty minutes to 1.

12.45 – It’s a quarter Общеупотребительная лексика to 1.

I’ll stay until she phones; I’ll be here until 4.30. (I’ll leave after she phones\ after 4.30).

I’ll be in office by 8.15 (= not later than 8.15).

I’ve worked in this office for six months. [for + a period of time]

I’ve worked here since May. [since Общеупотребительная лексика + a point of time in the past]

I worked on farm during the summer\ the holidays. [when]

I worked on farm for two years. [how long (not: during two years)]

I’m going back to Brazil in ten days` time (= ten days from now; not: after ten Общеупотребительная лексика days).

PAST

I’ve known this girl for ages. (= for a long time)

I haven’t been to the dentist recently\ lately. (e.g. in the last few months)

I saw Tom recently. (e.g. a few weeks ago\ not long ago)

I used to go skiing, but that was a long Общеупотребительная лексика time ago. (e.g. 5-10 years ago)

My sister went to the zoo the other day. (= a few days ago, perhaps a week)

PRESENT

I don’t see my sister much these days. (= a period including the past and now)

FUTURE

This dictionary will be OK for the time being. (= for Общеупотребительная лексика now\ the near future – but not long)

I’m sure I’ll go to America one day. (= in the future but I don’t know when)


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